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The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitize police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Nowadays Higher Education represents an area of excellence in Romania. In the past decades thousands and thousands of students from all over the world came to study in all of the 29 Romanian academic centers.
What do the international students find in Romania? A wonderful blend of tradition and modernity, vitality and performance along with traditional and new campuses.
To the traditional areas of study and research (Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Aerospace Engineering, Architecture, Economy, Oil and Gas, Chemistry, Computer Science, Civil Engineering), we have recently added new ones: Information Technology, Genetics, Biotechnologies, Communication Sciences, and the list can continue.
The first Romanian universities were established by Prince Alexandra Ioan Cuza - the University of Iasi (1860) and the Bucharest University (1864). In Transylvania, in 1872, the Cluj University was set up and in Bucovina, the University of Cernauti (1875).
In Romania higher education is provided in education and research institutions, universities, institutes, academies, conservatories and university colleges.
The state higher education sector in Romania comprises 49 state higher education institutions with 324 faculties and other 20 private higher education institutions. The higher education institutions comprise several faculties, university colleges, divisions and departments.
The academic year starts in the first week of October. Based on their institutional autonomy, universities decide on the academic schedule. Each year is divided into two semesters. Each semester lasts fourteen weeks. Students have a summer holiday, a Christmas holiday, an Easter holiday (on Orthodox Easter) and a holiday at the end of the first semester.
Examinations take place at the end of each semester. They may be oral or written. A re-examination period is scheduled before the beginning of the new academic year.
Undergraduate education provides two types of programs:
Short-term university education (2-3 year program provided by the university colleges) courses finalized with diploma de absolvire (diploma certifying the completion of studies at a college and the passing of a relevant examination). According to the Education Law, graduates of these courses may continue their long-term university education, under the conditions established by each institution.
Long-term university education (4-6 year programs provided by the universities, academies and conservatories) courses finalized with diploma de licenta (university diploma, equivalent to a first degree).
The duration of the long term studies varies according to the field:
Graduate education offers specialization or an extension of the education provided in universities. Graduate study programs include:
(1-2 years) for university graduates; graduates are awarded a degree diploma.
(1-2 years) for university graduates.
Graduate academic studies:
(2-3 years) organized by graduate study schools attached to universities or functioning as autonomous units. the studies aims to increase professional specialization.
(4-6 years) offered by universities and research institutes accredited as such; the doctoral courses are organized as day courses or night courses. The scientific title of doctor granted by the institution is validated by the National Council for the Attestation of Academic Titles, University Diplomas and Certificates.
Romania signed the Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region (Lisabona 1997), and at the same time, it is part of the Bologna Process concerning the implementation of the common European Higher Education area. Through commitments assumed at the European level, focused on quality assurance, credit transfers and transparency of educational programs description, qualifications (diplomas) obtained in the Romanian Higher Education ensured the academic and professional mobility of the graduates all over the world.
The European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is used in most universities in order to provide common procedures to guarantee academic recognition of studies taken abroad. It provides a way of measuring and comparing learning achievements, and transferring them from one institution to another